विकिस्रोत:धूळपाटी

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विकिस्रोत:अनुवादाचे प्रकार आणि व्याख्या

  • In skopos theory, the status of the source text is lower than it is in equivalence-based theories of translation. The source is an "offer of information", which the translator turns into an "offer of information" for the target audience.[1]Skopos theory focuses on translation as an activity with an aim or purpose, and on the intended addressee or audience of the translation. To translate means to produce a target text in a target setting for a target purpose and target addressees in target circumstances.


  • translator should translate so that the effect of the translation on the target reader is roughly the same as the effect of the source text once was on the source reader.
  • Formal equivalence tends to emphasise fidelity to the lexical details and grammatical structure of the original language. Dynamic equivalence, by contrast, tends to favour a more natural rendering, for instance when the readability of the translation is more important than the preservation of the original grammatical structure. In diplomacy or in some business settings people may insist on formal equivalence because they believe that fidelity to the grammatical structure of the language equals greater accuracy whereas in literature a novel might be translated with greater use of dynamic equivalence so that it may read well.
  • Legal Transalation :When translating a text within the field of law, the translator should keep the following in mind. The legal system of the source text (ST) is structured in a way that suits that culture and this is reflected in the legal language; similarly, the target text (TT) is to be read by someone who is familiar with the other legal system (corresponding to the jurisdiction for which TT is prepared) and its language. Most forms of legal writing, and contracts in particular, seek to establish clearly defined rights and duties for certain individuals. It is essential to ensure precise correspondence of these rights and duties in the source text and in the translation. Legal translation may also involve, Certificates of Accuracy, Witness Statements, Depositions, Trusts, Wills, Articles of Incorporation, Litigation Documents, Immigration Documents, Property/Exhibit Labels and in some cases attendance in court by the translator(s).[१]
  • Linguistic validation is the process of investigating the reliability, conceptual equivalence, and content validity [1] of translations
  • Cognitive debriefing shows that the respondents to a questionnaire or instrument understand the intent of the queries, and that the instrument is both culturally acceptable and contextually relevant to target populations. Cognitive debriefing verifies that translations of all items are interpreted in the same way across target populations and regions and have the same content validity.[२]


यथार्थ' होईल, पण 'यथारूप'[३]

शब्दशः किंवा वाक्यशः करावयाचे, कोटेकोर अथवा स्वैर करावयाचे, अर्थसाम्याबरोबर रूपसाम्यही साधण्यासाठी धडपडायचे का [४]

  • अर्थहानी >> संदर्भ टिपा
  • शब्दश: अनुवाद
  • अर्थानुवाद
  • context theory of meaning अर्थाची संदर्भ उपपत्ति
  • in the context of --च्या संदर्भात
  • contextual संदर्भात्मक

context पूर्वापार संदर्भ (पु.), संदर्भ संगति (स्त्री.) -

true interpretation खरेखुरे भाषांतर (न.)

interpret १ निर्वचन करणे, अर्थ लावणे, अर्थ करणे

version अर्थकथन, पाठ, भाषांतर

metaphrase शब्दशः भाषांतर (न.)

paraphrase अर्थानुवाद (पु.) adaptation

literal translation शब्दशः अनुवाद

छायानुवाद आणि भावानुवाद [५]

काळाचा संदर्भ

सांस्कृतीक संदर्भ

संदर्भाचा संदर्भ

Sense-for-sense translation

चिनी संकल्पना[संपादन]

  • highest standard of translation is transformation
  • formal resemblance but rather spiritual resemblance
  • "I'd rather be faithful than smooth"
  • fidelity १ एकनिष्ठा विश्वासार्हता >>clarity, and only then >> elegance
  • Zhou Zuoren assigned weightings, 50% of translation is fidelity, 30% is clarity, and 20% elegance
  • Lin Yutang stressed the responsibility of the translator to the original, to the reader, and to art. To fulfill this responsibility, the translator needs to meet standards of fidelity (), smoothness () and beauty
  • three-facet theory of translation; namely, faithfulness (信 xìn), be true to the original in spirit; expressiveness (達 dá), be accessible to the target reader; and elegance (雅 yǎ), be in the language the target reader accepts as being educated.
  • Five Untranslatables [६]

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